A Practical Harvard Essay System
A Harvard essay uses a system which is commonly known as the Harvard referencing style. The basic elements in a grad school essay assignment using the Harvard style of referencing is the way the author’s name is cited within the text of the essay. For example, the reference would include the author’s surname and year of publication (Tom, 2010). The citation would be referenced at the end of the essay in the form of a bibliography where all such citations would be listed in alphabetical order of the author’s name followed by other details. Let us go into further details that students could use in practice.
The first point of discussion is how authors are cited in the text. There could be one author or more than one author for the same work. Specifications would insist that you do not use citations in between sentences. It therefore becomes important how you use reference in each case. The general rule for a citation is to include the author’s name, year of publication, and page numbers (optional).
Citation Within The Text With One Author:
- If you wish to quote, use the following format – Tom (2010, pp. 15-16) states that ‘Online reference sites have become the primary source of information for students’.
- A format without quotes but which blends into the text would be – With advent of the internet, students have found value in referring to online websites as advocated by Tom (2010, pp. 15-16). This method is used to clarify the meaning of the quote and blend it into the text within the Harvard essay.
Citation With One Author But Not Included In Text:
When the text cannot include the citation directly, it is placed at the end of the sentence.
- With advent of the internet, students have found value in referring to online websites (Tom 2010, pp. 15-16).
There may be instances where there are two authors for the same work. Their names would be separated by an “ampersand.”
- Tom, P. & Jerry, L. (2010, pp. 15-16) state that ‘Online reference sites have become the primary source of information for students’.
There are some methods students need to be aware of while using a reference list.
A writer may refer to several works of the same author. In this case, the reference list would contain entries as per the year of publication.
If several publications exist in the same year, then lower case letters would follow the year of publication.
- Larry, M., 1990. Online reference sites have…
- Tom, P. & Jerry, L., 2003a. Online reference sites have…
- Tom, P. & Jerry, L., 2003b. Online reference sites have…
- Tom, P. & Jerry, L., 2010. Online reference sites have…
The Harvard essay could take reference from books, articles, white papers, journal, conference papers, and online resources. The Harvard reference style has specified information to be listed differently for each type of work. The structure and format in a university essay would be changed accordingly to identify the type of work being quoted. Some minor differences exist in the way international students would use reference material in their essays. Following a reference manual would help in mastering the different formats.